Course # DL-967: Frenetic Flora and Freezing Frank
Thyroid Hormones and Thyroid Diseases

by Helen Sowers, MA, CLS - California State University, East Bay (Retired)

Approved for 2.0 CE
Level of Difficulty: Intermediate


The thyroid gland produces two hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. These hormones are essential for cell differentiation during development and for maintaining temperature and metabolic homeostasis in the adult.

Thyroid disease is common, affecting millions of Americans. Abnormalities usually involve thyroid hormone underproduction (hypothyroidism) or overproduction (hyperthyroidism). Laboratory tests are used to diagnose the abnormality and help the physician treat the patient.

This course will cover:

  • the thyroid gland, location, structure, and function
  • thyroid hormone biosynthesis, control of production, and function
  • laboratory tests
  • thyroid diseases


After reading the course, the participant will be able to:

  1. describe the anatomy and location of the thyroid gland
  2. outline the biosynthesis and control of thyroid hormone production
  3. describe the transport and function of thyroid hormones
  4. outline the laboratory tests used in evaluating thyroid status
  5. describe hyperthyroid symptoms and the diseases which cause hyperthyroidism
  6. describe hypothyroid symptoms and the diseases which cause hypothyroidism
  7. construct a flow chart for identifying thyroid diseases by laboratory tests
  8. discuss the treatment of various thyroid diseases
  9. state the roles of antibodies in causing thyroid diseases


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